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转帖:《伦敦大学哲学学习指导》  

2007-01-27 21:19:42|  分类: 哲学日记 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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2006-11-08 | 《伦敦大学哲学学习指导》

    在Common Room里看到一本Philosophy: Study Guide,是伦敦大学给学生的哲学学习指南,主要是指导学生读书特别是写作的。非常有价值。如果哪个学生按照要求做了,一定很快就会成材。当然,也正因为如此,并不容易做到。但无论如何,在黑暗中自己摸索,不如秉烛夜游,良有以也。

    第一章名叫学习哲学指南。

    1、如何读哲学(书)。开头就说“一生中任何阶段读哲学书皆非易事。有人称读哲学书足以怡情,但据说维特根斯坦发现读某些哲学书乃是一种痛苦。许多人倾向于同意他的看法。不管哲学家抱有多么好的意愿,想把他们的著作写得清晰易读,读来有趣,但结果几乎总是穿插点过时笑话的更沉闷更晦涩的文字罢了。记住,读哲学不是为了一时的痛快,而是要让你离开时仍会有印象的。如此看来,使你对哲学的阅读尽可能高效,读有所值,就十分重要了。为此,面对文本,你必须保持既同情又批判的态度。要做到这一点,最好的办法通常是在读书的时候,心里想着些普遍问题。一般说来,除非你能回答以下问题,否则你就不会从书本上得到你能够得到的所有东西。”

    接下来,编者详细说明了七个问题:

  • 作者想得到什么结论?
  • 那个结论何以有趣?
  • 其论证是怎样?
  • 就其自身而言,其论证是否有效?
  • 论证的前提应该被接受吗?
  • 如果我们接受其前提和结论,那会得出什么结论呢?
  • 最后,论证、论点这个问题是比较复杂的,不能一概而论。但无论如何,你都要保持同情之理解,批判之态度。Dong't just read: think。

    2、写哲学文章:Peter Lipton说,风格是箭矢之羽,而非帽子上的羽毛。所以写作要

  • 避免粗劣的文字,要我手写我口,用自己的话,还要让自己的文章念得出口。
  • 要设身处地为读者着想。
  • 要善于编排文章的结构
  • 要有原创性

    3、文献书名的引用注释规范。这就不说了。

    4、剽窃(plagiarism)。剽窃的后果很严重。还举了个例子:

  • The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles. Society as a whole is more and more splitting up into two great hostile camps, into two great classes directly facing each other: Bourgeoisie and Proletariat. Masses of labourers, crowded into the factory, are organised like soldiers. Not only are they slaves of the bourgeois class, and of the bourgeois State; they are daily and hourly enslaved by the machine, by the overlooker, and, above all, by the individual bourgeois manufacturer himself. The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. They have a world to win.

    这是剽窃。

  • Marx and Engels noted that the history of all hitherto existing society had been the history of class struggles. Society as a whole was more and more splitting up into two great hostile camps, into two great classes directly facing each other: Bourgeoisie and Proletariat. They observed that proletarians had nothing to lose but their chains. They had a world to win.

    这仍是剽窃。

  • In The Communist Manifesto, Marx and Engels (1973 edn., p. 40) noted that 'The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles'. They argued that society was 'more and more splitting up into two great hostile camps, into two great classes directly facing each other: Bourgeoisie and Proletariat' (p. 41). 'Masses of labourers, crowded into the factory' were 'organised like soldiers ... slaves of the bourgeois class, and of the bourgeois State' (p. 52). They concluded that 'The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. They have a world to win' (p. 96).

    这不算剽窃,可要是整篇文章都这样,说明你并没有理解这些观点,也就得不到好分数了。

  • In one of the most famous first sentences ever written, Marx and Engels (1973 edn., p 40) began The Communist Manifesto thus: 'The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles.' They went on to exemplify this claim by showing how the structure of society had, in their view, developed into two interdependent but antagonistic classes: bourgeoisie and proletariat. The latter comprised factory operatives, who had been reduced to no more than slave labour; but as they became concentrated geographically, in the great factory towns of the industrial revolution, so they had the opportunity to organise themselves politically. Hence, the authors' conclusion that a communist revolution was not only desirable, but possible, leading them to issue their equally famous final exhortation (p. 96): 'WORKING MEN OF ALL COUNTRIES, UNITE!'

    这也许不是什么深刻的评论,但至少说明我尝试过!

    5、哲学的一般性著作和系列。这些基础读本是有参考价值的:

  • Routledge Arguments of The Philosophers.
  • Oxford Readings in Philosophy.
  • The Blackwell Philosopher Dictionaries.
  • Cambridge Companions.
  • Blackwell Companions to Philosophy.
  • Routledge Philosophy GuideBooks.
  • The Encyclopedia of Philosophy, ed. P. Edwards. Eight Volumes.
  • The Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, ed. E. Craig.

     如今这种著作大概因其市场销量好,所以剑桥、牛津、布莱克威尔、劳特利奇等大出版社竞相出版,花样百出,值得参考,但代替不了对原著的阅读!——这是我说的。

    6、世界上的所有著作。这是对图书馆、电子图书馆和书店的介绍。

    到此,本章结束。后面的22章介绍的是各个哲学分支的阅读写作指南。当然,这22个分支基本上也就是课程的主题,因此,这22章实际上就是课程论文写作指南。每一章都包括如下部分:论文的要求;基本阅读材料;核心的历史文献;主要领域、基本问题和相关文献。非常有实用价值。试以第2章逻辑与形而上学为例:

1 The Paper:对逻辑和形而上学做了说明。

2 General Reading:十一部文选、六部专著

3 Topic:各领域的论题

  • A 语言与逻辑
    • a 意义与指称:相关问题与文献:

      How does language relate to reality? How is it that words can be about things or refer to things? Referring expressions or singular terms, expressions which pick out a particular object, are normally divided into three categories: proper names (‘Julius Caesar', ‘Rome'), descriptions (‘the conqueror of Gaul') and demonstratives (‘this', ‘that', ‘that city', ‘this emperor'). Names and descriptions need to be treated separately. (Demonstratives are treated in the philosophy of language section of this Guide.) The standard reading for this topic is contained in the anthologies edited by Martinich and Moore mentioned above; there is an excellent introductory essay in sections 1 & 2 of Mark Sainsbury, ‘Philosophical Logic', in A. C. Grayling, ed., Philosophy. There are short versions of writings by Mill and Frege, with commentary, in Chapter One of Reading Philosophy of Language, eds. J. Hornsby and G. Longworth (Oxford: Blackwell forthcoming). Frege's classic theory of sense and reference is an essential theme. Frege thought that there are two aspects to the meaning of any term: its reference (what it applies to in the world) and its sense (the way in which the term presents its reference). So the two terms ‘Julius Caesar' and ‘the Roman conqueror of Gaul' have the same reference but different senses. See Frege, ‘On Sense and Reference', in the Frege Reader, reprinted in Moore and in Martinich. See also Michael Dummett, ‘Frege's Distinction Between Sense and Reference', in Moore and in Dummett's Truth and Other Enigmas, (London: Duckworth, 1978). For discussion, see Gareth Evans, The Varieties of Reference, (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1982), chapter 1; Gregory McCulloch, The Game of the Name, chapters 1&5; David Bell, ‘Reference and Sense: an Epitome', in C. Wright, ed., Frege: Tradition and Influence, (Oxford: Blackwell, 1984) and ‘How “Russellian” was Frege?', Mind 99 (1990): 267-277; and Dummett, Frege: Philosophy of Language, (London: Duckworth, 1981) chapters 1, 5 & 6. For more on Frege see the section Philosophies of Frege, Russell and Wittgenstein in this guide.

    • b 摹状词:相关问题与文献
    • c 名称
    • d 条件句
    • e Existence
    • f 有效性与蕴涵
    • g 非形式逻辑
    • h 模糊性
  • B 真与主观性(以下兹不详列)
  • C 心与自然
  • D 必然性与分析性
  • E 同一性与实体
  • F 共相与殊相
  • G 因果性与规律
  • H 时间与空间

     上面介绍了这么多,目的是什么?一是说人家考虑的周到,学生用起来方便;二是学生自此就可以确定有了自己的研究领域,循着哪些问题,读哪些文献,水平自然就提高了;三是,如果学生都是很好学、很认真的,那老师在其中能做什么呢?他的教学方法是不是应当与时俱进了呢。

      最后,上面的手册可以在网上查阅:http://www.ucl.ac.uk/philosophy/LPSG/

    布里斯托大学据此也做了一个:http://www.bris.ac.uk/philosophy/current/undergrad/studyguide/

    希望本贴对学生有所帮助,因为它花了我两个小时的时间。

 
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